July 14, 2010

Swami Vivekananda 1.3.6

Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms

  • Introduction

    • There cannot be good without evil and vice-versa which Sanskrit logicians call dream in the air.
    • Hate and love are similar to electricity where power will come back to the dynamo as every action equals to reaction.
    • The stars also goes through it's stages and comes back to the same. This is because law is the same throughout, even in thought.
    • Is going back to God the higher state or not? Dualistic form states man comes from God and lives as man and ultimately goes back to God. Monistic form says man is God, goes back to Him again. Such misery, degeneration, and end cannot happen in highest stage.
    • There are much higher stages beyond reasoning and thought. We are in a cycle all the time and follow the rule of the cycle. One agnostic person will stand still in the street and die. One agnostic who cannot do that is fraud.

  • Concentration: It's Spiritual Uses

    • The eye takes the brain and the mind to view as it cannot perform the functions alone. Thus the Indriyas (organs) with the Manas (mind), Buddhi (determinative faculty) and Ahamkara (egoism) form Antahkarana (the internal instrument).
    • Thought is a force as it comes out from the Chitta and the thoughts called Vrittis. Only the real universe is the reaction from the mind. Matter creases to exist only because of the senses. Only our experience can understand it all.
    • We cannot see the bottom of a lake if there is ripples. Only when the water is calm can we see the bottom. The bottom is likewise the Self, the lake is the Chitta and the waves the Vrittis. The organs draw the Chitta out of it's desitiny and Yoga can help it back to it's destiny.
    • The darkness thoughts are the Tamas, power and enjoyment gives the Rajas and then there is Sattva which gives calmness and the motivation becomes clear.
    • The Chitta scatters, darkens, gathers, one-pointed and concentrated. Scattering is activity, darkening is injury and dullness, in gather it struggles to center itself, and then the one concentrated and this form gets us to Samadhi.
    • When we see the bottom of the lake, it is calm and every blame causes Vritti resulting in misery. The five classes of Vritti (modifications) are right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion, sleep and memory. Direct perception, inference, and competent evidence are proofs.
    • When two contradictions are heard, we fight them. Proofs are required: Pratyasha (direct perception that we can see and feel), Anumana (inference) and Aptavakya (direct evidence from the Yogis where there is no more contradictions). This is for the truthful and only for religions.
    • We have first of all to see that the man who declares himself to be an Âpta is a perfectly unselfish and holy person; secondly, that he has reached beyond the senses; and thirdly, that what he says does not contradict the past knowledge of humanity. Any new discovery of truth does not contradict the past truth, but fits into it. And fourthly, that truth must have a possibility of verification. If a man says, "I have seen a vision," and tells me that I have no right to see it, I believe him not. Everyone must have the power to see it for himself. No one who sells his knowledge is an Apta. Secondly, he must be superconscious, which we cannot get from our senses and would benefit the world. Thirdly, it must not contradict our truths. Fourthly, the man must be singular.
    • Another form of Vrittis is Vikalpa which is not uttered and we receive a conclusion immediately. It is a weakness when one jumps into conclusion right away. Sleep is another Vritti which embraces the feeling of voidness. Memory is another class of Vrittis called Smriti and through sleeping, it would also bring about the knowledge of sleeping after your are done sleeping. The mind catches new information, knowledge through direct perception, false knowledge, verbal delusion and sleep that is thrown to the chitta. Dream is another ripple which is called memory at waking state. Through repeated habits, one develops character in their own selves. Through practice, you can understand what we are capable of and our impressions towards self. Practice is the attempt to form the mind in Chitta from going into waves. Restrain comes through long continued practice. 
    • What causes us to our actions are what we see in ourselves and experience of others. To not get angry keeps the mind toward the experience of others. One should control these temptations and not be affected directly towards them, fall for them. Vairagya is the only way to freedom. 
    • The Parusha or the Self is formed of three qualities, Tamas, Rajas and Sattva. The perfect concentration is the goal of a Yogi, through Samadhi and through non-attachment. Samadhi is divided into Samprajnata and Asampranjnata. Samprajnata is composed of Savitarka when the mind meditates upon an object again and again, which most Yogis use the twenty-four categories of Nature and the one sentient Purusha. As the thoughts are entered into the mind, the forces of nature are one, called Avyakta. When mind concentrates on oneself, it gains power over the object. Vitarka means question and Savitarka means questioning the elements. 
    • When one struggles to take the elements out of time and space and thinks of them as they are, it is called Nirvitarka (without question). When meditation takes through the Tanmatras and objects them in time and space, it is called Savichara (with discrimitation). When meditation eliminates time and space and thinks of the fine elements as they are, it is called Nirvichara (without discrimination). When thinking organs are thought of taken out of one's qualities of dullness and activity, it is called Sananda. When the mind is the object of meditation, when meditation becomes ripe and concentrated and ideas of gross and fine matter are given up and Sattva of the Ego only remains, it is called Sasmita Samadhi and has been taken out of their body. When they converge with nature without attaining the goal is called Prakritilayas and the ones who does not stop in their goal is reaching for freedom.
    • Asamprajnata Samadhi is perfect superconsciousness. The way is to meditate of the mind itself and strike down any thought and making the mind a vaccum. To be able to vaccum out the mind without preparation and training, the person attains more Tamas or ignorance. In this stage, the concentration is consciousness and the mind succeeds in quelling waves in the Chitta and holds them down and other waves remain in form of tendencies. When these waves, tendencies are destroyed, Samadhi becomes seedless. 
    • Knowledge is lower than the stage beyond knowledge. Ignorance is the lowest stage, knowledge is the middle stage and the one beyond knowledge is the highest. In this highest stage, the person will understand that he was neither born no dead, he needs neither heaven or Earth, he did not come or go. When the Soul commands, whatever It desires will be fulfilled. 
    • The Sankhya philosophy states that there is no God because if there is one, then He is a soul either bound or free. If the soul is bound by nature, how can it control nature or if it is free from nature, then It has no desire to manipulate the world. Our goals are to become one of the Gods and the Samkhya philosophy states that in the Vedas the God that had been spoken to is one of the free soul. 
    • The God in Indian philosophy are not perfect. The ones who do not want to be rulers of cycles, they attain liberation. Ishvara is the Supreme Ruler, inconsistent of misery, actions, their desires and results. Just as time as one second is small, not unlimited, you have to think of knowledge as the same to know about the unlimited knowledge which the Yogis say is God. All the knowledge is in every one of us, and we try to bring out that knowledge. God is the unlimited teacher because there is no limited time in Him with infinite knowledge and without beginning or end.
    • Language differs throughout the world but the relation stays the same. Om comes from the larynx and the palate. Written Aum, A is the root sound without touching any part of tongue or palate and M is produced by closed lip, U rolls from the very root to the end of the sounding board of the mouth. 
    • Just as vibration has caused the universe to take form from atoms, repetition gives us the power to Yoga. But disease, mental laziness, doubt, lack of enthusiasm, lethargy, clinging to sense-enjoyments, false perception, non-attaining concentration and falling away from the state when obtained are obstacles for Yogi. Grief, mental distress, tremor of the body, irregular breathing are the worst for Yogis.
    • Friendship, mercy, gladness, and indifference brings the Chitta to it's higher stage. The misers should be given mercy, we shall be good towards the good, we must be indifferent towards the evil.
    • The sum total of the energy is manifested in Prana. The Universe is composed of Prana and Akshara and controlling the energy, Prana is the target set by Yogis. Prana is the force, which is manifested in three parts inside the body. The Pingala is on the right side of the spinal column, the Ida on the left and in the middle is Sushumna. Conservatives have a really hard time through constraining the brain because they do not respond to new ideas.
    • Any religion which deals with only the world and the Infinite beyond will prove to be ineffective. From Dharana, one begins to smell, taste, and feel different options in themselves.
    • Another type of concentration in told here:  Think of the lotus of the heart, with petals downwards, and running through it, the Sushumna; take in the breath, and while throwing the breath out imagine that the lotus is turned with the petals upwards, and inside that lotus is an effulgent light. Meditate on that. Meditate on one's heart who has been unattached, and meditate on the holy things that pleases you or anything that appeals to one as good. As the Yogi develops these characteristics, the Yogi's mind becomes less changing from time to time.
    • There are three things of meditation given to us. The gross things (bodies, or material objects), the fine things (mind, Chitta), and the third Purusha. Through meditation, the Yogi is able to develop characteristics to looks just like themselves.
    • Sound, meaning and resulting knowledge, being mixed up is called Samadhi with question. Sound means vibration, meaning is the nerve currents, and knowledge is reaction. Sound triggers senses to vibrate, which later causes reaction. When we are able to distinguish between these three, it is called Nirvitarka or concentration without question.
    • The gross objects are only the elements and everything manufactured out of them. The fine
      objects begin with the Tanmatras or fine particles. The organs, the mind, (The mind, or common sensorium, the aggregate of all the senses), egoism, the mind-stuff (the cause of all manifestation), the equilibrium state of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas materials — called Pradhâna (chief), Prakriti (nature), or Avyakta (unmanifest) — are all included within the category of fine objects, the Purusha (the Soul) alone being excepted.
    • Concentration without discrimination becomes fixed and firm to the Chitta and the knowledge is filled with Truth. From testimony and inference, the knowledge that comes about is about common objects. From Samadhi, that knowledge is able to penetrate and able to go where inference and testimony cannot go. 
    • By practicing what is written in the Vedas, we are able to know if what is written in them are actually true or not and that is aphorism. Through perception we are able to understand God which we cannot see or hear. Religion can only be understood through perception. Our mind will swing back and forth from time to time when we want to concentrate on one object itself because they repress you with all their force. The Samshara which is raised by Samadhi and concentration will take over the power from those thoughts and hold them in check.
    • From different waves, different impressions come up because these waves are covering the Soul. From there we can understand that the Soul is not compound, it is eternal simple and cannot be born, cannot die, it's immortal, indestructible, and in it lives intelligence.

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